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The Costs of Delivering Vaccines in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Findings from a Systematic Review

Abstract
Information on immunization delivery costs (IDCs) is essential for better planning and budgeting for the sustainability and performance of national programs. However, delivery cost evidence is fragmented and of variable quality, making it difficult for policymakers, planners, and other stakeholders to understand and use. This study aimed to consolidate and summarize the evidence on delivery costs, answering the question: What are the unit costs of vaccine delivery across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and through a variety of delivery strategies?

Results
The majority of IDC evidence comes from low-income countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Most unit costs are presented as cost per dose and represent health facility-based delivery.
Discussion

The cost ranges may be higher than current estimates used in many LMICs for budgeting: $0.16–$2.54 incremental cost per dose (including economic, financial, and fiscal costs) for single, newly introduced vaccines, and $0.75–$9.45 full cost per dose (economic costs) for schedules of four to eight vaccines delivered to children under one.

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